Is glyphosate a part of your morning routine? Dangerous herbicide found in organic eggs, dairy, breakfast foods
Is glyphosate a part of your morning routine? Dangerous herbicide found in organic eggs, dairy, breakfast foods
Plants, herbs, healthy microbial life and ecological diversity are all being tortured byMonsanto’s famous herbicide chemical, glyphosate. Introduced commercially in 1974,glyphosate took the world by storm. Today it practically rains down over the fields as if it were water.
In the Midwest, farmers obey orders and blast the chemical even after they have harvested their crops; according to directives, glyphosate is used as some sort of weed prevention through the winter to keep resistant plants from coming up in the spring. In the spring, large trucks can even be seen blasting glyphosate along the highways, right into the ditches, adjacent to yards. Small town gardeners aren’t even safe from glyphosate, as nearby sprayers do not care about other people’s property.
MORE EVIDENCE THAT GLYPHOSATE ACCUMULATES IN ANIMAL TISSUE
The chemical doesn’t just break down safely into water after it’s sprayed on plants, as the industry purports. Previous tests have measured glyphosate in human urine, blood and even breast milk, accurately detailing the chemical’s pervasive toxicity. The chemical is even being found in women’s tampons, thanks to cotton crops being sprayed with glyphosate.
Now, new lab tests by the Alliance for Natural Health-USA provide more evidence that glyphosate persists throughout nature and accumulates in animal tissues. This is a devastating reality, because the chemical works as an antibiotic and depletes the human microbiome, ravaging a person’s digestive system and subsequent ability to assimilate nutrients and activate immune responses.
Honestly, this herbicide is one of the main terrors causing the cancer epidemic, blocking the ability of people to utilize nutrition properly in their bodies.
GLYPHOSATE TAINTING ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS
This silently destructive herbicide is even finding its way into organic soils, and can now be measured in products that were once considered safe from the horrors of chemical contamination. New lab tests conducted by the ANH-USA, find that glyphosate has made its way into a plethora of breakfast products, including oatmeal; organic, cage-free, antibiotic-free eggs; organic whole wheat bread; organic bagels; and organic coffee creamer. See the lab results.
This is a nightmare scenario for anyone who is looking to maintain their health from the ground up. Consumers who want to avoid toxins like glyphosate tend to buy certified organic foods. How can organic food be trusted as a clean source of nutrition, if glyphosate is silently making its way into these products too?
The Environmental Protection Agency has set an “allowable daily intake” level of glyphosate in different food products, but what do these “allowable” levels of glyphosate do to the body over time? How can any level of glyphosate be considered safe in water, when one understands the all-important role water serves for every cell in the body?
As reported by Health Impact News, the newest tests searching for glyphosate included 24 popular breakfast foods and ingredients. Glyphosate was measured in products such as flour, corn flakes, bagels, yogurt, potatoes, organic eggs and coffee creamers. Consumer advocates believe that the levels are too high, even though they fall under the “allowable” levels set by the EPA. When did chemical contamination of organic food products become an acceptable, “allowable” trend?
Most of the foods tested are derived from non-Roundup Ready crops. For these foods to have even a trace of glyphosate is appalling. The most worrisome products that glyphosate was found in were organic eggs and dairy creamers. These products are never sprayed directly with glyphosate. This is clear evidence that the toxic herbicide is being taken up into animal tissues and building up, ultimately exposing humans to the effects thereof.
How is this affecting everyone’s genes over time?
We can no longer afford to watch the consequences roll out before us.
Avoid glyphosate. Confront its use. Know the causes behind disease, especially cancer. Defend your future.
July 7, 2012
ANN ARBOR, Mich.
Michael J. Potter is one of the last little big men left in organic food.
More than 40 years ago, Mr. Potter bought into a hippie cafe and “whole earth” grocery here that has since morphed into a major organic foods producer and wholesaler, Eden Foods.
But one morning last May, he hopped on his motorcycle and took off across the Plains to challenge what organic food — or as he might have it, so-called organic food — has become since his tie-dye days in the Haight district of San Francisco.
The fact is, organic food has become a wildly lucrative business for Big Food and a premium-price-means-premium-profit section of the grocery store. The industry’s image — contented cows grazing on the green hills of family-owned farms — is mostly pure fantasy. Or rather, pure marketing. Big Food, it turns out, has spawned what might be called Big Organic.
Bear Naked, Wholesome & Hearty, Kashi: all three and more actually belong to the cereals giant Kellogg. Naked Juice? That would be PepsiCo, of Pepsi and Fritos fame. And behind the pastoral-sounding Walnut Acres, Healthy Valley and Spectrum Organics is none other than Hain Celestial, once affiliated with Heinz, the grand old name in ketchup.
Over the last decade, since federal organic standards have come to the fore, giant agri-food corporations like these and others — Coca-Cola, Cargill, ConAgra, General Mills, Kraft and M&M Mars among them — have gobbled up most of the nation’s organic food industry. Pure, locally produced ingredients from small family farms? Not so much anymore.
All of which riles Mr. Potter, 62. Which is why he took off in late May from here for Albuquerque, where the cardinals of the $30-billion-a-year organic food industry were meeting to decide which ingredients that didn’t exactly sound fresh from the farm should be blessed as allowed ingredients in “organic” products. Ingredients like carrageenan, a seaweed-derived thickener with a somewhat controversial health record. Or synthetic inositol, which is manufactured using chemical processes.
Mr. Potter was allowed to voice his objections to carrageenan for three minutes before the group, the National Organic Standards Board.
“Someone said, ‘Thank you,’ ” Mr. Potter recalls.
And that was that.
Two days later, the board voted 10 to 5 to keep carrageenan on the growing list of nonorganic ingredients that can be used in products with the coveted “certified organic” label. To organic purists like Mr. Potter, it was just another sign that Big Food has co-opted — or perhaps corrupted — the organic food business.
“The board is stacked,” Mr. Potter says. “Either they don’t have a clue, or their interest in making money is more important than their interest in maintaining the integrity of organics.”
He calls the certified-organic label a fraud and refuses to put it on Eden’s products.
Big businesses argue that the enormous demand for organic products requires a scale that only they can provide — and that there is no difference between big and small producers. “We’re all certified, and we all follow the same standards,” said Carmela Beck, who manages the organic program at Driscoll’s, which markets conventional and organic berries. “There is a growing need for organic products because the demand is greater than the supply.”
Many consumers may not realize the extent to which giant corporations have come to dominate organic food. Then again, giant corporations don’t exactly trumpet their role in the industry. Their financial motivation, however, is obvious. On Amazon.com, for instance, 12 six-ounce boxes of Kraft Organic Macaroni and Cheese sell for $25.32, while a dozen 7.25-ounce boxes of the company’s regular Macaroni and Cheese go for $19.64.
“As soon as a value-added aspect was established, it didn’t take long before corporate America came knocking,” Mr. Potter says. He says he gets at least one e-mail a week from someone seeking to buy Eden, which is based in Clinton, Mich., and does about $50 million a year in sales. “Companies, private equity, venture capital, even individuals,” Mr. Potter says. “The best offer I ever got came from two guys who had money from Super Glue.”
Between the time the Agriculture Department came up with its proposed regulations for the organic industry in 1997 and the time those rules became law in 2002, myriad small, independent organic companies — from Honest Tea to Cascadian Farm — were snapped up by corporate titans. Heinz and Hain together bought 19 organic brands.
Eden is one of the last remaining independent organic companies of any size, together with the Clif Bar & Company, Amy’s Kitchen, Lundberg Family Farms and a handful of others.
“In some ways, organic is a victim of its own success,” says Philip H. Howard, an assistant professor at Michigan State University, who has documented the remarkable consolidation of the organic industry. Organic food accounts for just 4 percent of all foods sold, but the industry is growing fast. “Big corporations see the trends and the opportunity to make money and profit,” he says.
BIG FOOD has also assumed a powerful role in setting the standards for organic foods. Major corporations have come to dominate the board that sets these standards.
As corporate membership on the board has increased, so, too, has the number of nonorganic materials approved for organic foods on what is called the National List. At first, the list was largely made up of things like baking soda, which is nonorganic but essential to making things like organic bread. Today, more than 250 nonorganic substances are on the list, up from 77 in 2002.
The board has 15 members, and a two-thirds majority is required to add a substance to the list. More and more, votes on adding substances break down along corporate-independent lines, with one swing vote. Six board members, for instance, voted in favor of adding ammonium nonanoate, a herbicide, to the accepted organic list in December. Those votes came from General Mills, Campbell’s Soup, Organic Valley, Whole Foods Market and Earthbound Farms, which had two votes at the time.
Big Organic lost that round. Had it prevailed, it would have been the first time a herbicide was put on the list.
Kathleen Merrigan, a deputy secretary of agriculture, disputes that corporate interests are behind the increase in nonorganic materials deemed acceptable in “organic” food. “The list is really very small,” says Ms. Merrigan. “It’s really very simplistic and headline-grabbing to throw out those sorts of critiques, but when you get down into the details, there are usually very rational and important reasons for the actions the board has taken.”
The expanding variety of organic products is partly behind the list’s growth, Ms. Merrigan says, adding that the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990, which governs certification, has tried to check the powers of board members. It requires, for instance, that the board reconsider each substance five years after the last approval of it — though only just a few have ever lost their status.
“Yes, there are some large organizations that make up a portion of the board, but they’re not at all a majority,” says Will Daniels, senior vice president for operations and organic integrity at Earthbound Farms Organic, one of the country’s largest organic produce processors. “Four of the 15 board members could be considered from a corporate structure, a number that means they don’t have power to do much of anything.”
Those four are Earthbound, Driscoll Strawberry Associates, Whole Foods and the Zirkle Fruit Company. Only one of them, Earthbound, has a fully organic business.
Critics say the system has never truly operated as intended. “It’s been neutered,” says Mark Kastel, director of the Cornucopia Institute, an advocacy group.
Cornucopia began taking a harder look at the history of the addition of carrageenan and other substances to the accepted organic list after a bruising battle last December over the addition of docosahexzenoic acid algae oil, or DHA, and arachidonic acid single cell oil, or ARA. Its research led to a paper titled “The Organic Watergate.”
“After DHA got onto the list, we decided to go back and look at all of the ingredients on the list,” Mr. Kastel says. “The average consumer has no idea that all these additives are going into the organic products they’re buying.”
Mr. Potter of Eden Foods was initially supportive of the government’s efforts to certify organic products. But he quickly became disenchanted. He has never sought a board appointment, for himself or anyone at Eden. “I bought into the swaddling clothes wrapped around it,” he said. “I had high hopes the law and the board would be good things because we needed standards.”
By 1996, he realized that the National Organic Program was heading in a direction he did not like. He said as much at a National Organic Standards Board meeting in Indianapolis that year, earning the permanent opprobrium of the broader organic industry. “They think I’m liberal, immature, a radical,” Mr. Potter says. “But I’m not the one debating whether organics should use genetically modified additives or nanotechnology, which is what I’d call radical.”
Charlotte Vallaeys, director of farm and food policy at Cornucopia, found that two large companies, General Mills and Dean Foods, and the vast cooperative Cropp, which sells produce under the Organic Valley brand, “have held nearly continuous influence on the board.”
Such influence is not always obvious. For instance, early members of the board from Cascadian Farms, Muir Glen and Small Planet Foods were the chief advocates for allowing synthetics into organic production. By the time synthetics made it into the final rules, passed in 2002, all three had been swallowed up by General Mills. Tracy Favre, newly appointed to the standards board, works for Holistic Management International, a nonprofit that advises clients on sustainable agriculture. Holistic Management has done work for Dean Foods to help it address criticism of production practices for its Horizon organic milk brand.
Ms. Favre referred calls to the Agriculture Department.
Cornucopia has also lodged complaints about the board’s composition with the secretary of agriculture and the department’s inspector general. Based on one of the complaints, the inspector general is looking into how materials are added to the list.
Cornucopia has challenged the appointment of Ms. Beck, the national organic program manager at Driscoll’s, to a seat that is, by law, supposed to be occupied by a farmer. Officially, “farmer” means someone who “owns or operates an organic farm.”
The Organic Foods Act calls for a board consisting of four farmers, three conservationists, three consumer representatives, a scientist, a retailer, a certification agent and two “handlers,” or representatives of companies that process organic food.
Ms. Beck works with Driscoll’s organic farmers here as well as in Mexico and Chile, helping them develop and maintain their organic systems plans. “I work with growers from as few as a couple of acres to up to hundreds of acres,” she says.
But Ms. Beck does not own or operate a farm.
In contrast, Dominic Marchese, who produces organic beef in Ohio, has tried and failed three times to win a board appointment as a farmer. “I don’t have anything against her,” Mr. Marchese says, referring to Ms. Beck. “She’s probably very smart. But how do you select someone who’s not an organic farmer to represent organic farmers?”
Driscoll’s nominated Ms. Beck for one of the handler seats — but Tom Vilsack, the agriculture secretary, appointed her to one of the seats reserved for farmers.
Similarly, the three consumer seats have never been filled by anyone from a traditional consumer advocacy group like the Organic Consumers Association or the Consumers Union. Instead, those seats have largely gone to academics with agricultural expertise and to corporate executives.
“If you fill the slots earmarked by Congress for independent voices with corporate voices, you greatly mitigate the safeguards built into the supermajority requirement of the law,” Mr. Kastel says.
MILES V. McEVOY, deputy administrator of the National Organic Program, says that all appointments are cleared with the Agriculture Department’s general counsel. “The board is designed to have interests and for the members to have biases and represent their particular interest groups,” he said. “We are trying to make sure the board represents the diversity of the American public and of organic agriculture.”
Alexis Baden-Mayer, political director at the Organic Consumers Association, says her group has no quibbles with that goal: “I understand that there are very few 100 percent organic businesses left. But to add someone from a company like General Mills that has such a big interest in promoting genetic engineering, promoting nanotechnology, promoting a variety of things that are so antithetical to organic principles, is that really necessary to achieve diversity?”
She was referring to Katrina Heinze, a General Mills executive who was appointed to serve as a consumer representative on the board in December 2005 by Mike Johanns, the agriculture secretary at the time. The outcry over her appointment by advocates and independent organic consumers was so intense that she resigned in February 2006 — but rejoined the board late that year after Mr. Johanns appointed her to the seat designated by law for an expert in toxicology, ecology or biochemistry. During her second stint on the board, which ended last December, critics said they were shocked when she did not recuse herself from the vote to add DHA to the list, since its manufacturer sometimes uses technology licensed from General Mills in making it.
Ms. Heinze is responsible for food safety and regulatory matters at General Mills and has degrees in chemistry. She referred calls to General Mills, which in turn referred questions to the National Organic Program.
Driscoll’s was the only company that allowed an employee serving on the board to talk to The New York Times. The rest — even Cropp, the 1,400-farmer cooperative that sells more than $700 million in products, many under the Organic Valley brand — had more senior executives do the talking.
Organic purists would consider Cropp’s board representative, Wendy Fulwider, as one of the corporate executives on the board. During her tenure, Ms. Fulwider, Organic Valley’s animal-husbandry specialist, has voted almost in lock step with its corporate members, even though her vote may be supporting something Organic Valley does not allow its own members to do.
“Wendy’s a public citizen on that group and is supposed to vote what her own integrity is and not what our company’s view is,” said George Siemon, Cropp’s top executive and a former member of the organic standards board.
Ms. Fulwider surprised many observers at a board meeting in May by voting in favor of keeping carrageenan on the organic list. Before that meeting, Organic Valley was saying that it planned to find an alternative to the additive, and there is a long and active list of consumer complaints on its Web site about the cooperative’s use of it in things like heavy cream and chocolate milk.
Ms. Fuldwider has also voted to let organic egg producers give their chickens just two square feet of living space, when Cropp requires its own farmers to provide five.
Most controversially, she voted to add DHA and ARA to the list for use in baby formulas. Milk fortified with DHA commands premium prices, and Mr. Siemon said Organic Valley had to have a version of its milk with the additive “because that’s what the consumer wants.”
He said, however, that Organic Valley uses DHA derived from fish, not the variety Ms. Fulwider approved for the list. “For us, algae didn’t seem like the real deal. It’s almost like a wannabe,” Mr. Siemon says. “But hey, what do I know? I’m told all the studies showing the benefits of DHA are based on the type from fish oil, so we use the type from fish oil.”
Mr. Siemon says Organic Valley’s goal is to eliminate all additives from its products. The cooperative, for instance, is working to find a substitute for carrageenan, which it uses to prevent separation in products like cream and chocolate milk.
AMID such issues, Mr. Potter has tasked his daughter, Yvonne Sturt, to find a way to preserve Eden’s independence after he’s gone. Four of his children are now involved in the business and, he says, they must earn any control of the family company.
“People keep telling me that all the work we’re doing with organic farming and agriculture and processing, some of that could be deemed charitable work,” he says. “Maybe we should start a church.”
GROW YOUR OWN ORGANIC VEGETABLES
Organic gardening is nothing new. It is the way people grew crops for thousands of years—until the 1940s when organochlorine pesticides and artificial N-P-K fertilizers were introduced. Don’t believe the propaganda of the petrochemical companies. No pesticides are necessary. Since World War II, we have been adding poisons to our plants, and what have we accomplished? “Losses to pests ran at 6% of crops when we began to use [pesticides]. Today, pests eat 13% of our crops.” With their short life spans and fast rate of reproduction, insects rapidly become immune to pesticides. (Udo Erasmus, Fats that Heal, Fats that Kill, p. 391.)
A fine way to have organic vegetables is to put in your own garden and grow vegetables without chemicals, organically, and without animal-based fertilizers, veganically. In most parts of the country you can be eating out of your garden year-round. It was mid-January of 1996 when I first wrote these words, and there was parsley, kale, bok choi, fava beans, fennel, mustard greens, and collard greens growing in my garden. Leeks, onions, chives, and yellow fin potatoes will also grow right through Seattle winters—which occasionally get as cold as 20°F. Plants in the cabbage family survive even Russian winters, although there they must be cut back to the ground when the soil freezes rock solid. As soon as the temperature rises in the early spring, they jump out of the ground.
Those who have no place to grow a garden or who live in the far north where growing is impractical half the year should get into sprouting. See the Sprouting section of this book, p. 359.
Some flowers are edible—borage, nasturtiums, dandelions, pumpkin flowers, squash flowers, and evening primrose, for example—, and flowers attract the bugs that eat the bugs that otherwise would eat your vegetables.
Fresh greens from the garden can be one of life’s great experiences. After jogging in the morning, and after drinking water or juice or tea, I spoon up a bowl of wheat, barley, or rye (sprouted and cooked, or just sprouted) pour on a little flax oil, add some pumpkin seeds and/or walnuts, a dash of soy sauce, pepper, and some nutritional yeast. I take it out to the garden where I browse like a herbivore, eating leaves right off the plants without even washing them—a good way to get your vitamin B-12.
I graze on whatever is growing: lettuce, kale, collards, mustard, parsley, broccoli leaves and flowers, cauliflower leaves and flowers, nasturtium, mint, oregano, and chickweed, and eat them with my sprouted grain. I break off tasty little squashes and squash flowers and eat them raw. This illustrates an important point: miniature vegetables and tender sprouts—the stem cells of the plant world—are only available out of a garden. Grocery stores only sell fully grown veggies. You can also graze on plants that grow wild, including the dandelion flowers that grow along your jogging route. (See “Wildman” Steve Brill’s Identifying and Harvesting Edible and Medicinal Plants in Wild and Not-So-Wild Places and his Shoots and Greens of Early Spring.)
I sit on a stool or on the ground among the plants and look on in amazement at the plants and critters growing there. Birds visit to eat the worms and bugs. Squirrels come and climb the sunflower plants to filch the sunflower seeds. I indulge my sense of oneness with nature. The collard leaves sometimes have holes in them–the work of little slugs, but the taste is not affected at all. This is not artificially perfect produce from some commercial farm. It is my very own veganic food.
This morning (Tuesday, February 29, 2000) I left home in a hurry. I took the newspaper out of its plastic bag and filled the bag with leaves of Russian red kale, mint, and fennel. I took the bag to the office, dumped it out on the desk, and ate the contents as I worked on a legal brief.
In 2005 I grew flax for the first time. I bought a few ounces of flax seed and broadcast it. It grows around 18 inches tall and at the top it makes little blue flowers which turn into seed pods. The pods are filled with ten or twelve little flax seeds. The seeds are soft and white at first and later turn dark brown. The pods make a nice addition to your salad or stir fry. Flax oil pills are very expensive. Flax oil in a black bottle is somewhat expensive. Flax seeds are cheap. Flax grown in your yard and around your neighborhood is free once you get it started.
Food is medicine. Greens are a great source of vitamins, minerals, calcium, and roughage. They contain cancer-fighting phytochemicals. Eat as much as you can of your vegetables and greens raw. Cooking kills some vitamins and enzymes, although certainly not all, and cooking makes some nutrients such as beta-carotene more available. There are raw foods vegetarians who eat only fruit, nuts, and green vegetables. They eat their grains and lentils by sprouting them; no cooking is necessary.
Mustard greens are the hottest of all and my favorite. You can eat them raw if you chew them along with sprouted or cooked grain. Saliva neutralizes the heat. Steam, boil, or steam-stir fry the hotter greens such as mustard and the tougher greens such as collard. Cook them the minimum amount to soften and sweeten them. In the winter most greens become sweeter.
For the last word on organic gardening, read John Jeavons’ book, How to Grow More Vegetables and Bill Mollison’s Permaculture. Jeavons calls his method bio-intensive gardening: Never apply petrochemical fertilizers or pesticides. Grow plants close together to cool the soil and shade out weeds. In cooler climates with a relatively short growing season, start long-season and hot weather plants indoors under lights—tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, and basil.
Nitrogen gets washed out and used up quickly. New plants need nitrogen. You can add cottonseed or alfalfa meal for nitrogen. Or you can make your own nitrogen and add new humus by growing nitrogen crops such as fava beans, red clover, buckwheat, vetch, beans, lentils, and peas. They “fix” nitrogen out of the atmosphere. Plant them in the fall and dig them under in the Spring, right before planting. I have sandy, rocky soil. I keep right on growing nitrogen crops in various sections of my garden all through the year.
If you want to avoid all use of manure, this is what you have to do. Grow a nitrogen crop right before planting. Green manure will grow very fast in the summer. I have around 1,400 square feet of garden, so I have the room to spare. The difference is that during the summer I focus on the nitrogen crops I can eat—peas, beans, and favas. The leaves of peas and favas are edible. Notice the little white nitrogen-fixing nodules growing on the roots of beans and peas. These crops add nitrogen and humus to the soil and none of the chemical residues found in manure.
Buy loads of wood chips from local urban lumber jacks. They will let you have them for free to avoid a long drive to some disposal site. Chips from deciduous trees break down faster. Mix some into your garden, especially if your soil is sandy. Pile lots of wood chips under fruit trees and grapes. Over the years the wood chips will gradually decompose. You can grow plants in woodchips by starting them in regular soil and then transplanting them, surrounded by a shovelfull of dirt, right into the woodchips. You can hasten the breakdown of woodchips by adding saltpeter, potassium nitrate. Buy it for $6 per pound at your local garden center or for $.50 per pound out in a rural area from a fertilizer supply business.
Make a compost pile. Put leaves, grass clippings, left over, uncooked greens from the kitchen, and everything you rip out of your garden into the pile. In the early summer when the neighbor’s yard waste bins are full of grass clippings, it is part of my morning jogging routine on trash pickup day to roll my neighbor’s bins over to my compost pile. I ask permission in advance. I look at their lawns; if they have perfectly manicured grass with no weeds, it means they use Weed & Feed, containing atrazine and other nasty and unnecessary herbicides. I take a pass on such non-organic clippings. It’s amazing what suckers most home owners are.
Water your compost piles in dry weather; it is populated with worms, bugs, and bacteria that get thirsty just like you do. It is best to locate your compost pile in a shady area so it will not dry out, unless you intend to water it frequently. Scatter some dirt on top of the pile to colonize the compost with bacteria. In summer you can make compost in a month—especially if you water it and turn it over regularly. Never put anything you could have eaten into an open compost pile, because if you could have eaten it, rats can too. To eliminate rats from your neighborhood, leave them nothing to eat.
Sometimes I skip the composting process and simply yanking out excess vegetation and lay it down in the rows between plants or around certain plants I am trying to feed. Plants that have dead vegetation around them grow bigger and faster.
Compost can be mixed into the soil when you are planting, or you can use it to “top feed,” meaning you can spread it around plants already growing.
Make a worm bin: Use it to compost the food you cannot put in the compost pile. Build or buy a heavy wooden box. As a temporary worm bin, use an old suitcase or trunk; punch a few holes in the sides and bottom for air and drainage. Or buy a Rubbermaid bin and punch it full of holes so it will breath and drain. Add dry leaves, newspaper (call your newspaper to make sure the ink is soy and not petroleum based), and kitchen scraps, and then colonize it with red composting worms. Garden stores have the right worm species. A worm bin must have a lock, a heavy lid, or a brick on it to keep varmints out.
Plants must have minerals to be healthy and produce vegetation that is healthy for you to eat, so add ground up rocks to your garden. Add rock phosphate or colloidal phosphate for phosphorus. Add green sand, which is a seabed mineral, for potassium, potash, and trace minerals. Add granite dust for potassium. Add kelp for potash and trace minerals. Add sunflower hull ash for potash. Oyster shell is a good source of calcium, but using it subsidizes oyster farming. Instead, add limestone flour and dolomite lime for calcium. Lime is alkaline and sweetens acid soils. Add gypsum to put calcium into soils that are not acid. Make sure your minerals are organic; scam artists have been selling industrial waste and incinerator ash as minerals.
If you live anywhere near the seashore, use seaweed as a fertilizer. We go down to Puget Sound following a winter storm when quantities of seaweed are swept ashore. We load the trunk and back seat with garbage bags full of seaweed. Look for dried seaweed swept up near the high tide line; it weighs a lot less. Seaweed is rich in minerals. I recommend that you spread out the seaweed on your lawn and either rinse it well with the hose or let it get rained on. Most of the salt in seaweed is on the surface. Some seaweed supporters say forget about the salt and just pile the seaweed on your garden. To harvest seaweed in Washington you must by a clam digging license.
Various plants reseed themselves and grow up spontaneously in my garden: borage, parsley, kale, collards, bok-choi, broccoli, cauliflower, mustard, and cabbage. If you let some of them go to seed, you will have “volunteers” sprouting up in the spring. You can space-out or relocate volunteers into neat rows if that is what you like. All make seed pods that you can collect in paper bags for replanting when and where you want.
Parsley is a favorite. It’s a fair source of calcium and it will grow right through the winter in most parts of the United States. Wander through your garden and chomp away on parsley. You can make a great soup just out of parsley, onions, olive oil, and water.
Parsley will volunteer in odd places. It is invasive, but that’s not bad, because it is easy to jerk out when you want to plant something else in its place. Parsley will get tall and make seeds. Cut off the mature seed tops, dry them in a paper bag, and scatter them hither and yon around your yard and around the neighborhood.
The Romans saved parsley to the end of the meal and ate it last as a breath freshener, the classical version of tooth brushing. Gradually people stopped eating it, and it became merely a decorative garnish. Ask others at your dinner table, May I have your parsley? Let no sprig go uneaten.
Buy open-pollinated seeds, which are the product of one strain bred with itself. These seeds will produce seeds which will grow the same plant next year. Hybrids are generally a reproductive dead end, sold so you will have to buy new seeds every year. Become a “seed keeper.”
Support the smaller seed companies which specialize in open-pollinated seeds such as Abundant Life Seeds (www.AbundantLifeSeed.com); Territorial Seed Company (www.Territorial-Seed.com); and Bountiful Gardens (connected with Ecology Action, which was created by John Jeavons, www.BountifulGardens.org).
Mint is very aggressive, so take a shovel to it regularly, chopping most of it out, including the roots. If you don’t, it will just keep spreading. Tarragon spreads out in a perennial mat. Rosemary grows into a bonzai tree.
Squash and pumpkin flowers make tasty eating right up until the first heavy frost. The more flowers you pick, the more flowers the plants produce.
Borage dies in the winter, but it reseeds itself and comes back spontaneously in the Spring. The blue flowers attract beneficial insects. Borage is prolific and invasive, although not in a bad way because you can yank it out easily. I use the plants as compost. I might wrap one around some plant I am trying to give nitrogen to. I pile them under my grapes to keep down the weeds.
Borage flowers are good in soups and salads or eaten raw right off the plant. There is some debate about whether it is safe to eat borage leaves, but some sources say it is alright to eat them occasionally and in moderation. Nasturtium flowers and stems have an interesting, spicy taste.
Grow onions, leeks, garlic, and shallots. All live through the winter in the Northwest. Step on the onion stalk to bend it, or cut it down to a few inches tall; this promotes growth of the onion underground. It does no harm to onions to dig them up and spread them out if they are too crowded. Start onions with little onion starts. Leeks and onions make big seed pods; cut them off, and dry them in a paper bag for later planting. Grow garlic and shallots from garlic and shallot cloves. To make leeks grow thick at the base, dig a trench six to nine inches deep, and plant leeks in the bottom of the trench. As the leeks grow, gradually fill in the trench around the base of the leeks.
Plant peas early and often from early Spring to late Fall. When they stop producing seed pods, rip out the vines and compost them. Then plant another crop. They add humus to the soil and fix nitrogen. The small, tender, newly-emerging leaf clusters on the top are as good to eat as the pea ponds and peas.
I buy mustard seeds in bulk and broadcast them at random everywhere. They grow well in the rich mulch around my fruit trees. Kale grows well in the leaves piled under my grapes.
I have a front yard and a back yard garden. During the Winter, there is chaos, with kale, collards, mustard, leeks, onions, dill, and parsley growing wherever they have taken hold.
In Spring I practice what I call relocation gardening. There are hundreds of healthy volunteer plants growing in chaos on their own. Some are too crowded, and sometimes they are infested with weeds. So I start at one end of the garden and dig out healthy plants, including a big clod of dirt around the roots. After I have cleared some space, I relocate the healthy plants, giving them the right amount of room. I work from one end of the garden to the other this way until there is a plant every six to 12 inches. In the space left over I might plant new seeds in neat rows or plant a nitrogen-fixing crop.
I am most successful at growing grapes. After their first year most grapes need no watering except during severe drought. I have ten different varieties growing. Seedless grapes are fine, but I prefer buffalo, concord, and pinot gris. It is too much trouble to spit out the seeds; I just swallow them. They come out the other end. Grapes are great eaten fresh, and you can freeze them in bags for making smoothies. Even seeded grapes are good for freezing. The blender breaks up the seeds so they can be partially digested. People pay a lot of money for pycnogenol, which is made from grape seed.
I built a 20’ x 25’ arbor above my back deck. Bolt 4” x 4” posts to steel rods, available at Home Depot. Then sink the rods into concrete; with no earth-wood contact the posts will not rot at the base for decades. Use untreated cedar posts instead of treated posts that are heavy, brittle, and treated with copper and arsenic. Home Depot has ready made hardware that is perfect for attaching steel rods and cross members to the 4” x 4” posts.
I also grow grapes in rows. I tried using 4” x 4” cedar posts, but I discovered a better support system, the Unistrut post, made of galvanized steel, available at the local electronics supply house, and typically used to support banks of computer servers. (www.unistrut.com.) Buy the full size 1.5” x 1.5” 10 foot long strut. Rent a post hole driver, and drive the 10 foot long struts four feet into the ground. The struts have slots every six inches or so. Pass berry wire through these slots. Unistrut is not as pretty as a 4” x 4” cedar post, but it is cheap, stout, rust resistant, and will last a century.
I have had success growing kiwis, particularly the smaller, hardy variety, actinidia arguta. A kiwi plant will eventually produce hundreds of pounds of fruit. Kiwi plants are not self-fertile, so you need a non-producing males to fertilize the producing female. You must give a kiwi proper support for it to produce heavily. .
Instead of ornamental trees, I have planted apple, pear, peach, plum, fig, mulberry, and Asian pear. In Spring, when the tent caterpillars arrive, I pull them off and throw them into the garbage can. The big problem with growing apples organically is the apple maggot, which drills a hole into the core. I could use bT, which is a natural insecticide, however, we have so many apples that I just let the maggots have their share. I toss the wormy apples into the compost pile.
For those just getting started with gardening, I should say a few words about how to convert a lawn into a garden. I did it the wrong ways: In one area I used a rototiller. In another I cut out the sod in blocks, and stacked them up until the grass died in the hot summer.
A much easier method is to put down cardboard and newspaper, leaves, grass clippings, and some wood chips over your new garden area. The cardboard, newspaper, leaves, grass clippings, and wood chips will shade out the grass underneath. If it is growing season, use a shovel or stake to punch holes through the cardboard. Dig some dirt up through the holes and plant your plants.
Certain plants need a lot of summer heat to prosper: tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, eggplant, and okra, for example. If you live in a relatively cool climate such as we have in the Northwest, grow such plants against the south facing wall of your house.
Tomatoes need to be staked up well. Plant each plant deep; the lower branches will turn into additional roots. Put a metal tomato cage around the plant when it is small, and drive plastic or bamboo stakes on either side of it. Run cord between the stakes on several levels, and later run cord around the growing plant. This supports the plant and keeps the cage from falling over when the plant is big. As the plant grows, trim off the limbs near the ground. You will have a five-foot tall tomato tree. Asians build a cage around a pair of tomato plants made of bamboo poles tied together with twine.
VEGANIC GARDENING—VEGAN AND ORGANIC
You already know what organic gardening is. Veganic gardening is organic gardening done without adding animal manure.
Even commercially grown organic vegetables are grown with manure, bone meal, and blood meal. Federal organic regulations did not change this. Manure contains nitrogen, and bone meal contains calcium, however, there are other sources of these minerals. A broader spectrum of trace minerals can be found in kelp and ground up rock. Manure, bone, and blood add unnecessary salt to your soil, and they contain petrochemicals and residual drugs.
Furthermore, animal fertilizers bear a heavy baggage of animal suffering; the animals that produced this poop, blood, and bones did not lead happy lives. There are reports that gardeners can contract spongiform brain disease by inhaling bone meal, and that they should wear a mask when they apply it. (See the section of this book entitled Spongiform Brain Disease, p. 280.)
Plants need added nitrogen. Instead of adding manure, add compost around the base of plants after they have come up. If you have no compost ready, grow green manure and turn it under. If your green manure is not ready, add leaves or, grass clippings. Nitrogen is lost very quickly, so you don’t need to spread your compost or leaves or grass clippings or hay everywhere. You are just wasting it. Add it around the base of your plants after they come up. Such sources will provide all the nitrogen your plants will need, and they will be organic and veganic.
How much green manure should you add? It depends on how poor your soil is. My garden was mostly sand when I started. I devoted over half my garden for several years to growing green manure. I still have extremely poor soil. I will be growing green manure and adding wood chips for a long time.
“Well,” some say, “I use animal fertilizer because it will just go to waste otherwise.” No, if you stop buying it, then the production of animal products generally becomes just a little less profitable. I say boycott the entire animal-based food and materials stream.
My great regret regarding gardening in Washington is that the drinking water is fluoridated. That means I must water my greens and vegetables with fluoridated water. The short term solution is to buy a rain barrel. Long term we must get the fluoride out of our water. (See http://FluorideClassAction.WordPress.com.)